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Invited Article

The partition of Bengal in 1947 brings forth significant changes in the society, culture, economy and politics that have long term consequences. The article offers a deep insight into one more dimension associated with the event – the psychological metamorphism of the common people which is still alive and controlling the socio-economic-political landscape of the West Bengal.

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ঠাকুরবাড়ির সঙ্গে ত্রিপুরার রাজপরিবারের সম্পর্ক দেবেন্দ্রনাথের সময় থেকে। সেই সূত্রে রবীন্দ্রনাথের সঙ্গেও রাজপরিবারের সম্পর্ক গড়ে ওঠে। সেই সম্পর্ক ক্রমশ দৃঢ় হয় সাহিত্য ও সাংস্কৃতিক মেলবন্ধনের মাধ্যমে। বাংলা ভাষা ত্রিপুরায় রাজভাষার মর্যাদা লাভ করেছে। রাজাদের পৃষ্ঠপোষকতায় সংস্কৃত সাহিত্য ও পুরাণাদির বাংলায় অনুবাদ হয়েছে। বাংলায় সাহিত্য রচনার ক্ষেত্রেও রাজারা উৎসাহ প্রদান করেছেন। ত্রিপুরায় আধুনিক বাংলা সাহিত্যের চর্চা অনেক পরে মূলত রবীন্দ্রনাথের হাত ধরে শুরু হয়। রবীন্দ্রনাথের উৎসাহে ‘কিশোর সাহিত্য সমাজ’ প্রতিষ্ঠা ও পরে ‘রবি’ পত্রিকার মাধ্যমে ত্রিপুরার বাংলা সাহিত্যে আধুনিকতার সূচনা হয়। ‘রবি’ পত্রিকায় রবীন্দ্রনাথের অনেক রচনা প্রকাশিত হয়েছে। রবীন্দ্রনাথকে কেন্দ্র করে ত্রিপুরায় আধুনিক বাংলা সাহিত্যের সূচনা ও বিস্তার কীভাবে হয়েছে তার স্বরূপ সন্ধানই এই গবেষণা নিবন্ধের মূল অন্বিষ্ট।

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  • Code-Mixing (CM) and Code-Switching (CS) is a common feature of bilingualism. It is omnipresent in every human society and community around the world. It is present in the written dialogues of the characters of the novels. Indian English novels are marked with such examples of code-mixing and code-switching between English and Hindi. It is a representation of real-life conversations in Hindi or any language spoken all over India. The present paper explores the typology of code-mixing and code-switching in the conversation of characters in Mulk Raj Anand’s Coolie. The types are presented and limited to the dialogues/ conversation of the characters in the novel. The present study is based on the framework of typology given by Hoffman (1991). The data has been analyzed under each category and then, in the end, there is a collective discussion with consolidated findings. The instances of CS are italicized and presented without sentence, phrase and clause in which they are used. It is expected that this paper will be able to classify the types of code-mixing and code-switching used in the select novel.

  • Generally speaking, ‘intelligence’ refers to one’s ability to learn about, learn from, understand, and interact with one’s environment. In the first half of the 20th century, psychometric theorists like Spearman held that intelligence is a basic ability that determines the performance of all cognitive tasks and that it can be measured through IQ tests. On the other hand, the cognitive-contextual theory of intelligence that flourished in the second half of the last century held that cognitive processes operate in various environmental contexts. Among these theorists, possibly the most influential is Howard Gardner, who advanced the theory of ‘multiple intelligences’ (MI theory) in 1983. Refuting the age-old concept of intelligence as a single entity, Gardner held that there exists a multitude of intelligence, that are independent of each other, and that each intelligence has its strength and limitation. In the perspective of teaching-learning, MI theory recognizes each of the learners’ uniqueness in his/her own ability. It holds that each can flourish according to his/her area of strength if given the proper environment and opportunity. This theory makes educators rethink over organizing and reflecting on curriculum, assessment, and pedagogical practices in the classroom. However, the reorganization of the classroom environment based on MI theory has many practical constraints. Teaching-learning of beginners in a specially structured classroom with a few students might be a way out to design the education system according to MI theory. Due to these limitations, MI theory has remained, among significant parts of the academic fraternity, a theory only and not practicality.

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